CCSVI (Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency) was officially classified as a venous malformation and had its symptoms and treatment methods described during the 2009 Monte Carlo Congres Union Internationale de Phlebologie. CCSVI can be caused by a number of various pathologies (stenosis, constriction, narrowing or blockage) located near the azygos vein and the internal cervical vein.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by multifocal damage to the nervous tissue caused by demyelination. Periods of remission and exacerbation with progressive neuron loss are typically observed in MS patients. MS primarily affects young adults, and is most prevalent in patients aged between 20 and 40. The disease affects females more often than males.

Theories linking vascular abnormalities to MS have been first formulated in the 19th century by Rindfleisch who observed the accumulation of blood vessels in MS plaques and by Charcot who observed the prevalence of vascular blockages in MS patients. In 1934 T. Putnam suggested that compromised blood drainage from the brain may induce the formation of MS lesions and can be responsible for the development of inflammatory changes in the central nervous system. Almost 50 years later F.A. Schelling proposed that venous reflux may be of the causes of MS.

The pinnacle of research on the link between vascular abnormalities and MS is the development of an endovascular procedure called the MS liberation treatment. The liberation treatment or, as it is now commonly known, the CCSVI treatment was first proposed in 2009 by professor Zamboni based on his Doppler ultrasound research conducted on MS patients. Proffesor Zamboni examined the veins of MS patients located in the neck and found that more than 80% of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) type of MS, and over 90% of patients with secondary-progressive (SP) or primary-progressive (PP) type met the criteria for CCSVI diagnosis. A majority of the patients that were examined exhibited the signs of valve malformation, stenosis or venous reflux presence in their neck veins.

Following the publication of the preliminary results of the study professor Zambioni turned to his colleague Dr Galeotti - a renowned vascular surgeon and together they formulated the background for the introduction of venous angioplasty as a means of CCSVI treatment. The initial study of the effectiveness of venous angioplasty involved 65 MS patients and showed significant improvement in the patient’s quality of life and neurological function following the treatment.


  • DAY 1
  • Patient Registration
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Doppler Ultrasound Examination
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Venography
  • DAY 2
  • Interventional Cardiologist Consultation
  • Pre-Procedure Preparation
  • Flebography
  • Baloon Angioplasty
  • DAY 3
  • Post-Procedure Check Up
  • Discharge From the Hospital



In order to undergo the CCSVI treatment the patient needs to go through our online preliminary qualification process which consists of submitting a preliminary qualification questionnaire for analysis by the AMEDS medical team. Please use the contact form to get in touch with one of our patient coordinators. Your personal patient coordinator will present you with a detailed treatment plan, assist you in the registration process, and help you with accommodation and travel arrangements.

After the patient registration and preliminary qualification process is complete, the patient is required to travel to our hospital facilities in Poland where they will undergo the pre-operation diagnostics. The diagnostics are performed on the first day of your stay at our clinic and include: comprehensive laboratory tests, an interventional cardiologist consultation, a Doppler ultrasound examination, a magnetic resonance examination, and a magnetic resonance venography. If the diagnostics confirm CCSVI the patient will have the CCSVI procedure performed on the second day of their stay at our clinic.


CCSVI Treatment

Balloon angioplasty, also known as venous angioplasty is a medical procedure used for the treatment of CCSVI. During the procedure the narrowed blood vessels are widened by the interventional cardiologist with the use of a special balloon catheter (a long plastic tube) introduced in to the patient’s venous system through the femoral vein located in the groin area. The catheter is guided by the physician to the location of the pathology present in the patient’s neck veins and is then inflated with gas to restore the blood vessels patency and thus enable proper blood outflow from the brain. The treatment is complete when the catheter is removed from the patients venous system.

The entire procedure is a painless experience for the patient and is extremely safe (complications occur in less than 1% of cases and are usually very mild). In rare cases the interventional cardiologist performing the treatment may decide to use special cutting balloons or stents to enhance or supplement the effects of balloon angioplasty.


  • Patients after the CCSVI treatment report a variety of positive health and quality of life changes, as well as MS symptom reduction. The most commonly observed benefits of the treatment include:
  • Improved balance
  • Reduced muscle spasticity
  • Improved circulation in the limbs
  • Improved bladder function and control
  • Some patients after the CCSVI procedure also experience significant improvement in other areas such as:
  • Vision
  • Speech
  • Swallowing
  • Walking ability
  • Cognitive function (i.e. memory)


Transport, Accomodation & Diet

Your personal patient coordinator will offer help in arranging ground transportation between the airport, hotel and clinic. AMEDS offers its patients transportation in both regular and medical transport vehicles as well as airport pick up by a designated driver. Our patient coordination team will also assist you with hotel accommodation arrangements and suggest our partner hotel located in close proximity to our hospital unit. All of our facilities offer a variety of dietary choices that the patient can choose from.